Critical Care and Shock

Review

Extra-Pulmonary Sarcoidosis: Neurosarcoidosis – Case Presentation and Literature Review

More than a century after the description of sarcoidosis, the disease remains not well understood. Sarcoidosis is an infl ammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by noncaseating granulomas with multiple organs affected. The epidemiology reveals lung involvement in 90- 95% of the patients and just 5-13% incidence of neurological involvement. We present an unusual case of a patient with medulla oblongata and retroperitoneal sarcoidosis with no other organ involvement.

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Non Infectious Pulmonary Complications after Bone Marrow Transplant with a Special Focus on Idiopathic Pneumonia Syndrome

Pulmonary complications are a signifi cant cause of early mortality (up to 100 days) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). While infectious complications particularly due to opportunistic pathogens are common in these patients, diffuse lung injury is a non-infectious complication occurring in 25-50% of HSCT recipients. The incidence of this complication is higher with allogeneic as apposed to autologous transplants and is largely dependant on the method of graft versus host prophylaxis.

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Abdominal Sarcoidosis

Abstract Abdominal sarcoidosis is an uncommon form of sarcoidosis. The clinical presentation of esophageal, gastric, small bowel, colon, appendicular, spleen, pancreas, and abdominal aortic sarcoidosis

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Effectiveness Study of rHuEPO in the ICU

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and resource use in ICU patients receiving rHuEPO in a naturalistic setting. Methods: A retrospective, case-matched (1:2 ratio) study compared patients receiving rHuEPO to a control group. Patients admitted between January 2000 and July 2002 with an ICU length of stay (LOS) ¡Ý3 days were identifi ed by an electronic data repository. Patients, who received rHuEPO prior to ICU admission, had chronic renal failure or were <18 years of age were excluded. Patients were matched by age (¡À5 years), sex, admission year and ICU type.

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Critical Care of the Liver Transplant ICU Patients: A Pittsburgh “Point of View”

The purpose of this review is to summarize the advances in critical care management of the liver transplant ICU patients (patients with end stage liver disease, before and after orthotopic liver transplant). The review is based on search of Medline literature, with a focus on liver failure patients and critical care issues around liver transplantation. Starzl Transplantation Institute at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center is one of the global leaders in the treatment of end stage liver disease (ESLD).

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Severe Complications of Herbal Medicines

Herbal medicines are being increasingly used for treatment of variety of disorders. Herbal medicines are generally thought to lack severe side effects. Despite of the general belief, herbal medicines are known to cause serious side effects and toxicities. On the other hand, physicians’ knowledge of herbal medicines and their potential toxicities are generally limited. Neurotoxicity, cardiac toxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity are potential severe complications of herbal medicines.

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Sublingual Capnometry: A Non-invasive Measure of Microcirculatory Dysfunction in Sepsis

Sepsis is among the most common reason for admission to intensive care units throughout the world. Sepsis is characterized by a generalized microcirculatory injury, which results in tissue dysoxia. Tissue dysoxia is believed to be the causation of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) which commonly complicates the course of sepsis. The expedient detection and correction of tissue dysoxia may limit the development of MODS.

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Cardiopulmonary Emergencies in Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that commonly involves the lungs and the heart. Although rare, lifethreatening cardiopulmonary emergencies can occur. Acute respiratory failure, massive hemoptysis, and cardiac emergencies are described in sarcoidosis. These clinical manifestations can be the first clinical presentation of sarcoidosis. The subject of cardiopulmonary sarcoidosis is reviewed.

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Opening Up to Lung Recruitment. Pulmonary Contusion and Derecruitment – The Role of Inflammation

Purpose of review: It was recently reported that a lung protective ventilation strategy resulted in no fatalities in 17 patients with ARDS secondary to lung contusion. Although the efficacy of a lung protective ventilation strategy to reduce mortality in ARDS patients has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms for this reduction remain unclear. Recent findings: ARDS is characterized by an inflammatory state of the lung that can be aggravated by mechanical ventilation.

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