Critical Care and Shock


Critical Care Economics

Health care costs represent a large percentage of the gross domestic product all over the world. According to the National Health Statistics Group, health care expenditure in the United States accounted for as much as 14% of the gross national product in 1992 and it is projected to reach 30% by 2030.
The intensive care unit (ICU) represents the hallmark of highly competent modern hospitals, offering highly trained staff and life-saving technology and it is also one of the most expensive units in the hospital.

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Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia and the Varon-Ayus Syndrome

Endurance sports such as marathon running are increasingly popular, attracting both professional and recreational athletes. While most participants recognize that these events can result in health hazards, few consider death a likely outcome. Exercise associated hyponatremia can be a consequence for which fatal outcomes may occur. In some it is mild and without symptoms. However, in others it is of such severity that respiratory failure secondary to pulmonary edema, and possibly death may result.

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Fat Embolism Syndrome

The classical syndrome of fat embolism is characterized by the triad of respiratory failure, neurologic dysfunction and the presence of a petechial rash. Fat embolism syndrome (FES) occurs most commonly following orthopedic trauma, particularly fractures of the pelvis or long bones, however non-traumatic fat embolism has also been known to occur on rare occasions. Because no definitive consensus on diagnostic criteria exist, the accurate assessment of incidence, comparative research and outcome assessment is difficult.

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Year in Review 2006: The Critically Ill Patient in the Pediatric ICU

The care of the critically ill patient in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) has remained an important topic for those health care providers dealing with children. The purpose of this article is to introduce to the reader a summary of selected papers which we consider relevant to the care of the pediatric critically ill patient and that were published in the year 2006. These articles were selected on the basis of application to the PICU, overall importance and are not to be solely considered authoritative in their field. There are many other useful articles.

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