Background: Process related to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in congenital heart disease (CHD) surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) machine often causes post-operative complications. This process begins with mitochondrial dysfunction in SIRS, initiated by the release of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor receptor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNFR-1). Neurological injury following pediatric congenital heart surgery remains common. Studies related to brain-derived protein (S100B) biomarker for cerebral hypoxia caused by microcirculation and mitochondrial dysfunction as a consequence of SIRS in CPB or pediatric CHD surgery have yet to be conducted. Observation to identify cerebral hypoxia is necessary due to the fact that early stages of cerebral hypoxia are often asymptomatic. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a tool used for observing oxygen delivery to the brain by measuring cerebral oxygen saturation (SctO2). In Indonesia, NIRS remains uncommon and no study has been conducted to date.
Objectives: To evaluate the role of S100B, sTNFR-1, lactate, and superior vena cava and cerebral saturations as predictors of neurological injury in CHD patients undergoing corrective surgeries, as measured using NIRS during and after surgical procedure.
Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. Inclusion criteria were pediatric patients with CHD aged 1 month to 6 years old undergoing corrective surgery. Exclusion criteria were patients with Down syndrome, single coronary artery, and not consented to participate in the study. For analysis, subjects were divided into 2 groups: (1) those with neurological deficits and (2) those without neurological deficits. All subjects were observed closely in intensive care unit (ICU) until they were discharged. Blood examinations were performed 3 times: before surgery, after CPB, and 4 hours after CPB.
Results: Fifty-one patients were observed from March to October 2015. Significant differences were observed in the value of S100B, STNFR-1, lactate, and area under the curve (20% AUC) baseline for cerebral saturation between both groups, as measured using NIRS. Those parameters could be used as predictors of post-CPB neurological deficit incidence in children with CHD.
Summary: In CHD patients undergoing corrective surgery, S100B value, sTNFR-1, lactate, and 20% AUC baseline for cerebral saturation could be used as predictors of neurological deficit following corrective surgery.