Critical Care and Shock

Intravenous thiamine as an adjuvant therapy for hyperlactatemia in septic shock patients

Abstract

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of intravenous (IV) thiamine in reducing hyperlactatemia in septic shock patients.

Design: Prospective, randomized controlled trial.

Setting: General intensive care unit (GICU), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur.

Patients and participants: Adult patients with septic shock and hyperlactatemia (lactate ≥2 mmol/l).

Interventions: IV thiamine 200 mg thrice daily for 3 days.

Measurements and results: A total of 72 patients were recruited into the study. Seven patients died within 24 hours of study commencement and were dropped out. Patients were randomized into the thiamine group (TG) who received IV thiamine 200 mg diluted in 50 ml of normal saline, or placebo group (PG) who received 50 ml of normal saline infusion over 30 minutes. Arterial blood lactate samples were collected at time of enrolment, after 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hours of study drugs administration. Relative lactate changes over 24 hours, duration of weaning off vasopressors, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score changes over 72 hours, ICU length of stay (LOS) and mortality rates were compared between groups. There were no significant differences in the relative lactate changes (TG: 37.5% [4.7-59.1] vs PG: 47.8% [29.1-70.7], p=0.091), duration of vasopressors being weaned off (TG: 75.5 [48.0-131.25] vs PG: 88.0 [48.0-147.0]), SOFA score changes (TG: 3.0±3.41 vs PG: 2.7±3.3), ICU LOS (TG: 5.0 [4.0-11.0] vs PG: 6.0 [3.0-12.0]), and ICU mortality rate (TG: 14 [43] vs PG: 12 [37]). Multivariate logistic regression test showed that baseline lactate level was an independent predictor for mortality (p=0.044).

Conclusion: Intravenous thiamine did not show significant improvement in relative lactate changes, time for shock reversal, SOFA scoring, ICU LOS, and mortality rate in septic shock patients with hyperlactatemia. However, baseline lactate level was shown to be an independent predictor for ICU mortality.