The purpose of this review is to summarize the advances in critical care management of the liver transplant ICU patients (patients with end stage liver disease, before and after orthotopic liver transplant). The review is based on search of Medline literature, with a focus on liver failure patients and critical care issues around liver transplantation.
Starzl Transplantation Institute at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center is one of the global leaders in the treatment of end stage liver disease (ESLD). This review is in part based on our work in the 28-bed liver transplant ICU at Montefiore Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, in Pittsburgh, PA.
Over the past few years, our understanding of the several important pathophysiologic markers of end stage liver disease has been significantly improved. For example, we do now much better understand hyperdynamic circulation of liver failure, hepatorenal syndrome and its consequences, the role of TIPSS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) and adrenal insufficiency in liver failure patients. The management and prophylaxis of variceal bleeding and subacute bacterial peritonitis (SBP), has been successfully standardized.
These and other advances in understanding of ESLD pathophysiology and its clinical results, have certainly contributed to more promising outcomes in the ICU management of these complex patients